During a recent trip to New York to attend HOPE 2000, I was introduced to a new project
underway to help "dispel the myths about hackers". Founded by a four person team at the
Laurentian University School of Commerce, they have devised a survey to help "further Hackerdom's growth by enabling
outsiders to better understand Hackerdom and focus on its positive contributions to society, now, and in the future.."
During the group's presentation at HOPE 2000, several points were brought up by the audience that casted doubt as to the
validity of the survey, the 'scientific' nature of their work, the scope of their questions, and the honesty of their intentions.
After the talk, I stopped by their booth to pick up additional information as well as a full copy of the survey they were asking
'hackers' to fill out. As I began to read the survey and digest their replies to audience questions, I had more and more doubts
as to the survey's use and ultimate goal. Rather than dispelling hacker myths as it claimed, it seemed to be a tool that helped
perpetuate some myths, while ignoring others that need dispelling.
Matt and I were able to catch up to one of the team members at Defcon 8 and ask her some follow-up
questions. Her replies fueled my frustration and lead me to wonder what this team was doing on such a project at all. Instead of
explaining points that were unclear, she only brought more doubts and concerns as vague and dodgy answers came out.
The Hackerstudy Team and Contact Information:
Dr. John Dodge - Business Strategy and Ecommerce professor
Kevin Ellis - recent graduate of the MBA program
Jano Lehocky - forthcoming B.Comm graduate
Dr. Bernadette Schell - Human Resources professor
Project Web Site: hackerstudy.laurentian.ca
Team Bios: hackerstudy.laurentian.ca/teamMemberNfo.htm
Laurentian University School of Commerce & Administration
Attention: Hacker Study
Ramsey Lake Road
Canada P3E 2C6
Voice: 705.675.1151 x 2123 .................. Fax: 705-673-6518
The Fundamental Problem
One of the most plagueing problems for all things hacker related is defining the term 'hacker'. With the wide variety
of meanings attached to the world, most traditional journalists find themselves explaining their use of the word
as a qualification to their article. To blindly use the word 'hacker' without qualifying yourself, you open your work
up to arguments and errata as each person looks upon the word differently. To some, hacker is a badge of honor, bestowed
upon those coming up with brilliant solutions to difficult problems. Others see it as a term to describe malicious
computer criminals that break into networks illegally. With such varying meanings, it is impossible to blindly use such a term,
especially in a 'scientific' study.
Another serious point of concern that went unanswered by the team at HOPE 2000 (despite being questioned), is how the
team will qualify their participants as "hackers". If this survey's strength resides in answers coming from the hackers themselves,
then how do they ensure that only hackers are answering the questions?
From: About the Study
"Our study will prove useful to all in Hackerdom by revealing facts
about hackers, as derived from hackers' responses to our survey items."
Any random kid off the street has the ability to seriously skew the results of this survey unless some attempt is made to
qualify participants as hackers.
I attempted to clear this up at Defcon 8 by asking Dr. Bernadette Schell a few questions about these concerns. As each
question progressed, Schell's voice got quieter and quieter until Matt and I were leaning over the table trying to hear the
whisper of each answer.
Brian: "What is a hacker in your opinion?"
Schell: "Hackers are a number of things.."
(At this point, no definition or explanation was offered.)
Brian: "So how do you qualify that the people taking the survey are hackers?"
Schell: "We let everyone who declares themselves a hacker participate."
Brian: "That doesn't exactly seem scientific, how can you be sure you are
collecting valid data?"
Schell: "I would say the people filling it out are serious."
Re-reading their literature I find myself stumbling on one sentence in particular, especially
compared to Schell's comments above:
"It is our hope that from our study, science will be able to dispel some
of these myths and provide the public and organizations with a balanced view
regarding Hackers in society."
Science does not come in the form of a "collection of self assessments" from people they
'believe' are serious.
Sleight of Hand
To many hackers, their identity and privacy are the most important thing. They will not relinquish
information that could identify them and demand their privacy be respected. That in mind, participants
should be interested in a few key points regarding this survey. Comparing various quotes from their
literature one begins to wonder why they make such a point of claiming participants will remain
anonymous when all the evidence suggests otherwise.
"To ensure anonymity and confidentiality, we will NOT ask for
your legal name, your company's name, or any other identification
in the questionnaire."
"Please note that your identity and personal results will remain
This is a cleverly worded sentence that might be a good way to divert attention from a serious
issue. There are two problems here:
1. They DO ask for identifying information in the questionnaire.
2. Even if they did not, there are several other ways they can track the person
taking the survey.
The first way is extremely obvious. At several points, they offer participants a "personalized analysis" of
your survey. How do you get your personal analysis? Answer yes or no in the 'Followup Feedback' section at the
end of the questionairre.
Would you like your personal profile? Yes___ No___
If "yes," please tell us in the space below how to get the information to you
(ie: E-mail address, P.O. Box, fax number).
THANK YOU so much for completing this survey. PLEASE e-mail (email@example.com)
your responses to us, or fax them to us (705-673-6518). You may also mail your
completed survey to:
Laurentian University School of Commerce & Administration
Attention: Hacker Study
Ramsey Lake Road
Canada P3E 2C6
I think it is pretty apparent that each way of contacting them gives the team some way to
identify you. When Dr. Schell was questioned about this:
Brian: "Doesn't the 'followup feedback' identify the participant?"
Schell: "I won't know who they are."
That answer doesn't adequately address the concerns at hand. It shows a complete lack of
understanding of how technology works, or is an outright lie.
The Tip of the Iceberg
For those wishing to participate in the survey online, you can do so from the Hackerstudy web page.
Clicking on the "Online Survey" you get a one pager stating the goal of the survey etc. Clicking on
"Begin Survey" is a whole 'nother story. Rather than go to their own survey hosted at the University, it
redirects you to a third party site (appblast.desktop.com) that is hosting it. Relying on a third
party for such a confidential scientific study seems irresponsible.
Interestingly enough, to take the survey you must provide a login and password or sign up for an
device for those willing to participate in the survey.
"We may share user information in order to provide you with a more
integrated and customized user experience within our site."
Great, so if the Hackerstudy team doesn't give out my information, Desktop.com will.
During the HOPE 2000 presentation I asked how many people would be participating in the survey.
Two and a half minutes later, the team finished with "I hope that answers your question." No,
it sure didn't. It took a second direct question at Defcon to finally ferret out the answer
from Dr. Schell. When asked, she replied "hundreds". Giving her the benefit of the doubt and
adding a healthy amount on top of that, lets consider 500 people responding to this survey.
The notion that 500 self proclaimed hackers could adequately represent the hacker population
is absurd. Thinking back to the simple fact that the term hacker has not even been defined
for this survey or anything else is amusing. So now we have 500 people professing to be something
that we can't define, representing tens or hundreds of thousands of people around the world.
Hrm, there is another interesting point, around the world. Since the presentation and booth
occurred at HOPE 2000 and Defcon, with the project residing in Canada, this survey seems doomed to
represent North American hackers only. The lack of foreign translations to accommodate hackers
worldwide backs this notion. Oops. There goes the science again.
Brock Meeks with MSNBC was present during the HOPE 2000 panel and took a keen interest in the claims
of the survey being 'scientific'. After several unclear answers to his questions, he managed to
establish that the Hackerstudy team would indeed put their 'scientific' study up for peer review.
This has been a longstanding tradition among scientific studies, that peers and critics could examine
your material looking for errors or searching for ways to improve the results.
At the conclusion of this study, the team declared it would be put up for peer review on
2600.com, possibly printed in a journal, and that they would
likely "write a book". The only real scrutinization the material would receive early on is from
the Laurentian ethics committee. At Defcon, Schell confirmed that a book would be a likely result
of the project, but did not mention the ethics committee. Could profit from book sales be a driving
motivation behind this study?
While you're at it...
After reading the questions on the survey, it seems that there are many rumors left untouched.
Even pretending the Laurentian Hackerstudy survey was to be successful, many stones would remain
unturned. Myths surround hackers and how they meet friends, if they do, whether it was online
or in person. Others think that hackers are shut ins, never leaving their dark basements and that they
enjoy the lighting their monitor provides. Hackers never visit the sun lit swimming pool, rarely venture
out into the public for movies or playing pool. There is a definite link between hackers and shooting
guns, no link between hackers and dating, etc. Which are fact or fiction? The questions found in this
survey won't help clear that up. These questions are either vague, extremist, irrelevant, or flat out
contradict their claims of protecting anonymity.
Questions on the Survey
To save you the time of getting to the questions, I've included a few below taken from a printed
copy of the survey handed out at Defcon. My comments appear in [brackets].
#5 Circle one label that best describes your sexual and lifestyle preference:
a) Monogamous heterosexual
b) Monogamous homosexual
e) Commune/group living
f) Open marriage
g) Abstinence is bliss
#7 My last year's annual personal income before taxes was: ______
#8 If employed, how many employees work there?
#9 My formal job (or student) title is: _____
[Aren't these questions useful in identifying someone? Combine these answers
with an IP address or login, then give it out to advertisers or the FBI...]
#10 On average, how many hours a week do you spend on related "hacking" activities?
[Since the survey and the team never define 'hacker', how can they expect a fair
or honest answer when it is not clear what 'hacking' activities are? Oh wait,
they 'define' it in another question...]
#13 Given the time you spend on "hacking" activities, what percentage of your
"hacking" time is spent on the following activities:
a) Breaking into websites and changing them
b) Cracking software releases
c) Breaking communication codes
d) Designing/Creating new software
e) Designing/Creating new hardware
f) Communicating with other hackers (ie: email, irc, etc)
[Oh, this is perfect. Brand these charlatans with the big 'H' for 'hypocrisy'.
If 'hacking' activity can be lumped into these six things with a casual
"other" for leeway, the Laurentian Hackerstudy team has already proven this
survey worthless. They leave out some choice options that are dominant in the
'hacker' subculture I believe. Reading or writing about hacking/security?
Breaking into computers with the owners permission? Maintaining a hacker/security
WWW/FTP resource? Communicating with security professionals discussing hacking
or security issues? That is certainly a lot to lump under 'other'.]
#15 Do you typically collaborate with other hackers on your hacking projects?
a) No, i tend to work alone
b) Yes, I tend to collaborate with others
[What, no 'c'? How about "Yes, with other NON hackers"? Their assumption that hackers
can only be bad/evil/illegal/negative connotation is a contradictory statement to
their own goals.]
#18 How do you typically, identify yourself on-line?
a) I use my birth name
b) I use a net handle
c) I use a combination of my birth name and net handle
Part 2: Over the past two weeks, how often have you experienced the following
health symptoms? Please use the following s cale for your responses:
Not at all (0) Littled (1) Quite a Bit (2) Extremely (3)
3. Being unable to get rid of bad thoughts or ideas
6. Feeling critical of others
7. Bad dreams
8. Difficulty in speaking when you are excited
11. Feeling easily annoyed or irritated
19. Poor appetite
21. Feeling shy or uneasy with the opposite sex
26. Blaming yourself for things
29. Feeling lonely
30. Feeling blue
32. Feeling no interest in things
34. Your feelings being hurt
36. Feeling others do not understand you or are unsympathetic to you
43. Loose bowel movements
45. Wanting to be alone
52. Feeling hopeless about the future
[Looking beyond the duplicate questions (23/33, 23/37/48), considering the
above list in the context of a two week period, what does this prove or
disprove? If you happened to be sick the past week and then fill this survey
out, you could potentially skew the results. If you answer honestly about
many of these vague and unqualified questions, you are fueling more stereotypes
and myths that can be applied to ANY group of people in the world.]
Part 2 B) Mind-Body Symptoms
2. I have often felt "very down" or "depressed"
3. I regularly blame myself for things that I have done or not done.
9. When I find myself in "a very self-confident" or "a high" mood, I am sometimes
easily annoyed or irritable
11. When I find myself in "a very self-confident" or "a high" mood, I can recall
doing foolish things with money.
13. When I feel "very down" or "depressed" I sometimes feel very bad and do not
[In today's society, aren't most of these 'symptoms' seen in everyone, regardless
of being a 'hacker'? Doesn't question 13 vaguely define "depressed" or "very down"?]
Part 3 Routine Behaviour
3. I am mainly concerned with my own well being.
16. Certain conditions or situations are the most important cause of my personal misfortunes.
19. Reason, rather than emotion, guides my behaviour.
35. Certain situations and states (eg, at my place of work) tend to make me unhappy,
but there is n othing I can do to alter things.
[Isn't 'behaviour' 19 extremist? Do they not see the possibility of a mix of reason
and emotion guiding behaviour? Who is qualified to give a self diagnosis to that degree?]
Their World is Collapsing
Sensing Dr. Schell's hesitation and lack of solid answers, Matt jumped into the fray at Defcon.
He began asking what special insight industrial psychology had in their survey.
Rather than providing an explanation, Dr. Schell took on the look of a deer in headlights,
as if dumbfounded that someone could or would ask these questions. Matt went on to explain that
other projects and surveys had been conducted around the psychology and sociology of hackers. He
questioned if the team had read this previous work, would cite it, and most importantly, build
on it. Dr. Schell could not answer when asked to name an author that could be credited with their
'approach' or methodology.
Claims of a scientific study to help dispel the myths about hackers. A survey to be taken by
'hackers' to generate new findings and results about a community the Hackerstudy team has little
knowledge about. One would argue that a lack of understanding about the way hackers operate might
give them an unbiased view, an edge in guiding this study. At that point critics should be quick
to point out that their qualifications in psychology, sociology and communication should be top
notch. With no foundation or credible backing on their approach, their carefully worded and misleading
ascertions of anonymity, and a fundamental lack of communication skills when engaged in simple
verbal dialogue... I would steer clear of this group.
Brian Martin (firstname.lastname@example.org)